North America is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west, and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. It is the third largest continent by area and the fourth by population.
Name: Vanessa Rissetto Job: Dietitian Entrepreneur Country: United States Age: 40
Vanessa Rissetto is on a mission to promote healthy eating. She is a Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist who specializes in Weight Loss, Weight Management, and Medical Nutrition Therapy as it relates to Diabetes, Cardiac Disease, and Gastrointestinal Issues. Her media appearances include Hallmark Channel, Refinery29, Men’s Health, and Chicago Tribune, among others. A chocolate lover, Rissetto lives in the USA with her husband, daughter, son, and four-legged friend Marley! Find her on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and her website.
On why she chose to study nutrition:
“I was always interested in science, medicine, nutrition, so I decided to take a few classes at New York University to see if it would be something I would want to pursue – it was!”
On what she has learned about the science behind nutrition:
“That it is science-based, and not just all these gimmicks that people are putting out there. Just because you hear of one study doesn’t mean it’s gospel. We have to find the reasons why and do a deeper dive.”
On how to make healthy eating affordable:
“It can be with proper planning. Just going to the supermarket without anything in mind can cause you to overspend. Having a handle on your schedule and the things you like to eat will ensure you don’t waste.”
On her favorite meal to make:
“I like to roast a chicken at the beginning of the week and use the remainder for a chicken salad or fajitas. It’s pretty versatile and easy to do.”
On her future goals:
“Honestly, I think if I can help people understand the science behind nutrition and get them to have a better relationship with food, then I can consider myself successful.”
It isn’t just about losing weight. It’s about feeling great, re-energizing, and finding a new lust for life.
On episode nine of the LatinX Point of View Podcast hosts Gina Esquivel and Leo Scarpati discuss “Aging in America.” Gina and Leo discuss the overall issue of getting older in the United States and some of the challenges that come with aging. They share a LatinX Point of View on demographic shifts, living longer, cultural values, and quality of life choices. Common themes that emerged during the episode include social security, working class, diversity gap, health care, wealth gap, poverty, and livable community.
America is aging. The average U.S. life expectancy increased from 68 years in 1950 to 79 years in 2013. The older population is also becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Between 2014 and 2060, non-Hispanic white older adults are projected to drop by 24 percentage points, from 78.3 percent to 54.6 percent. This changing demographic creates an interesting question because America has many different cultures that have specific views on longevity and healthy aging.
American culture is youth-obsessed and considers older adults irrelevant. On the other hand, older adults are treasured in Latino culture and are likely to stay with the family as they get older. Americans create their housing options and may live in an institution and see family eventually. Given the population shift, how do we age properly in America? How can we improve the quality of life as we age?
LatinX Point of View Podcast
Listen to the episode on the following platforms. (iTunes, Spotify, Spreaker, Play Music, SoundCloud) LatinX Point of View Podcast covers relevant topics through a cultural lens. Topics include entertainment, culture, business, government, and social justice. Subscribe to the podcast, follow the podcast on Twitter, and contact the hosts via email.
FACTS AND FIGURES
Latinx is the gender-neutral alternative to Latino or Latina.
Wealth inequality or wealth gap is the unequal distribution of assets among residents of the United states.
The changing racial/ethnic composition of the population under 18, compared with those ages 65 and older, has created a “diversity gap” between generations.
By 2014, 23 percent of men and about 15 percent of women ages 65 and older were in the labor force, and these levels are projected to rise further by 2022, to 27 percent for men and 20 percent for women.
With the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease expected to impact 16 million individuals by 2050, younger generations will increasingly assume caregiving responsibilities. More than a third of today’s caregivers are employed full-time. As millennials take on informal caregiving responsibilities, public and workplace policies must consider financial assistance or other support (e.g., family leave or allocated time off). This report explores the economic impact of the shift to millennial caregivers and the higher rate of incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in minority groups. The report concludes with a discussion of strategies at the organizational-and system-level to support millennial caregivers.
Calls for Action
Define public policy in supporting family caregivers in providing care.
Address how universities can better support student caregivers.
Companies and employers take the lead in supporting working caregivers.
Caregiver supports begin in communities.
To view the white paper, click here.
To view the best practice, click here.
Maya Gosztyla is the creator of AlzScience. Her passion for Alzheimer’s disease began at a young age when her grandmother was diagnosed with vascular dementia following a stroke. She currently works in a lab at the National Institutes of Health, where she’s researching a rare neurodegenerative disorder called Niemann-Pick Disease. In addition to her love of research, Maya has a passion for science writing and hopes to continue educating the public about the ways we can keep our brains healthy as we age. We are excited to interview Maya about her research, fighting Alzheimer’s and the role of diet in brain health. Follow her on Twitter @AlzScience
Can you tell us about your journey in science?
I’ve pretty much always known that I wanted to be a scientist, but the exact field of science has varied quite a bit. For most of my high school, I wanted to be an astrophysicist. But then I took an advanced biology course in my senior year, and I was hooked! I ended up going to college at the Ohio State University and double-majoring in Neuroscience and Molecular Genetics. I knew I wanted to get involved with research, so I joined a lab that was studying how axons (the long projections that neurons use to send electrochemical signals) are guided to their proper destinations during the development of the nervous system. This research was fascinating work, but over time, my interests began to drift more toward studying human diseases. I spent some time in Switzerland doing a research project on Alzheimer’s disease, which convinced me that this was the area of research that I wanted to focus on. After I graduated, I secured a research fellowship at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where my research has a biomedical focus. I’m now applying to Ph.D. programs in Neuroscience, and I hope to begin my enrollment this fall. I plan to research the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases (including Alzheimer’s) and develop new strategies for treatment.
What areas of research are you currently pursuing?
My section of the NIH is called the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. We are interested in the “bench to bedside” research, which involves taking scientific discoveries and trying to apply them to treating diseases. One of my projects is to develop a method to quantify how much cholesterol is inside of neurons that are growing in a dish. There are several diseases caused by the accumulation of too much cholesterol, including Niemann Pick Disease (also known as “childhood Alzheimer’s disease”). We are hoping that this new method will allow us to quickly screen thousands of different chemicals to see if any of them can reduce how much cholesterol is inside these cells. After that, we can investigate those chemicals further and try to develop them into a new treatment.
What’s one fact that you’ve learned about the brain?
During the day, your neurons are working hard sending lots of signals, and in the process, they release a lot of waste products into your brain. One of these waste products is amyloid-beta, a toxic protein that’s believed to be responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. Luckily, when we sleep, all the gunk inside your brain gets cleared away. That’s why getting enough sleep is so important!
What’s one piece of advice you would give to early career researchers?
One of the best things I ever did was start a science blog. It’s a great way to get more familiar with your field of research while helping other people to understand. It’s also great for networking; so far two people at my Ph.D. interviews have told me that they are regular readers of my blog!
How can science communication contribute to fighting against Alzheimer’s disease (AD)?
There’s a lot of misinformation surrounding Alzheimer’s disease. A lot of people don’t realize that only one-third of your overall risk is due to genetics—the rest is all determined by your lifestyle choices! A balanced diet, regular exercise, and lifelong learning can dramatically reduce your risk of getting this disease. I’m hoping that my efforts in science communication can help more people learn how to start taking better care of their brains.
What’s one recommendation you’d give people wanting to reduce their AD risk?
Probably the number one best thing you can do for your brain is to improve your diet. A lot of research has shown that the Mediterranean diet, which is also great for heart health, dramatically reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. This diet minimizes saturated fat and red meats while consuming lots of vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Even if you take a small step toward improving your diet, like cutting out all sugary beverages, it can make a big difference in your brain health, not to mention your body!
What are you most proud of in your life?
I started my blog AlzScience about three years ago, and I’m so proud of how far it’s come. Last year the site had nearly 15,000 readers and also won a Science Seeker Award. It’s fantastic when people comment that they are grateful to learn the information.
What are your future career goals?
This fall, I’m planning to start a Ph.D. program in Neuroscience. My goal is to pursue a career in research either as a professor or in the pharmaceutical industry. I hope I can play a key part in bringing Alzheimer’s cure research to fruition.
What do you like to do for fun?
I love jogging; it’s my favorite way to clear my head. I also read a lot, and occasionally play around on my violin.
A recentstudycould lead to interventions that extend human lifespan and improve health in our later years. Based on new evidence regarding a DNA-based theory of ageing, this field aims to attenuate diseases of ageing such as cancer, hypertension and Alzheimer’s disease.
Ageing research dates back many years, but thanks to scientists at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging the field has become more widely recognised. Researchers at Buck coined the term ‘geroscience’ to explain the relationship between ageing and age-related diseases. The notion that people are more susceptible to diseases as they grow older rings true to most of us, although some older adults lead healthy and active lives without medical intervention.
“Every day, 10,000 Americans turn 65, and every day, more and more of them are just as fit as me” – so says Linda Marsa, contributing editor at Discover magazine.Richard Johnson, an economist, says “Today’s seniors are healthier, better educated, and more productive than ever.” Despite these positive trends, many would argue that the goal of geroscience – to explain and intervene in age-related diseases including arthritis – remains highly relevant to today’s societies.
Since life extension studies remain inconclusive, scientists are working to improve ‘healthspan’ – the length of time a person is healthy, especially in the later years. Brown University Professor Dr. Stephen L. Helfand is one of several researchers whose work is advancing the rapidly maturing field of ageing science. He is also senior author of the study mentioned above.
This study showed that many transposable elements (TEs) become activated with age in the fruit fly Drosophila* and that this activation is prevented by dietary restriction – an intervention known to extend lifespan. TEs are sequences of DNA (our genetic material) that move (or jump) from one location in the genome to another. Drosophila is a small fruit fly used extensively in genetic research. Why do scientists use fruit flies? Because fruit flies share 75 percent of the genes that cause disease with humans including having a smaller, fully-sequenced genome for easier genetic manipulations. Ultimately, the study provides evidence that preventing TE activation by dietary restriction may be a useful tool in ameliorating aging-associated diseases. The hope is that such results could be applied to humans as research progresses.
“Our demonstration that dietary [restriction], genetic and pharmacological interventions that reduce the age-related increases in [transposon] activity can also extend lifespan suggests new and novel pathways for the development of interventions designed to extend healthy lifespan.” according to this study. Despite the possibility of a true causal relationship, scientists can (happily!) avoid misleading phrases such as the Fountain of Youth, since geroscience hopes to improve health and longevity – not provide some mythical youth potion. Older people are a rapidly growing demographic – by 2100, the number of people aged 60 and over will reach 3.2 billion. It is, therefore, vital that researchers use terms that do not marginalize an increasingly growing demographic – or maintain the current narrative of our youth-obsessed culture.
We have seen major breakthroughs in public health and medical research, including a generational leap in longevity, the use of antibiotics, the completion of the Human Genome Project, and more. Society has also reaped the benefits of new medical technologies and advances in nutrition such as sustainable diets, virtual reality, and food scanners. As the field of geroscience continues to evolve, both public and private sectors may increase investments for ageing research, especially if it can reveal treatments for conditions that afflict older people. More data is also needed to understand and support research findings including the current study by Dr. Helfand. This paper comes as scientists from three universities including, Brown University, New York University and the University of Rochester forge a new partnership in DNA-related research. The collaboration is supported by a five-year, $9.67-million grant from the National Institutes of Health. Hence, study outcomes could have a lasting effect on health and society. David Sinclair, a researcher of ageing at Harvard Medical School, has put this attitude into words: “The goal of this research is not to keep people in the nursing home for longer. It’s to keep them out of nursing homes for longer.”
Sophie Okolo is a public health researcher and science writer. After getting degrees in bioinformatics and public health, Sophie started Global Health Aging, a publication that explores the implications of longer, healthier lives. Find Sophie on Twitter and her website.
The world’s population is rapidly aging and women make up the majority of seniors in every country due to their higher life expectancy. There will be over 60 million peri- and post-menopausal women in the United States by 2030 and about 1.2 billion throughout the world.
Menopause Experiences in the United States
In the U.S., menopause often begins at the age of 51 with most women experiencing hot flashes and other symptoms like vaginal dryness and joint pain, according to the National Institute on Aging. While most studies have not focused on ethnic populations in the United States, a recent study by the Western Journal of Nursing Research found that certain ethnicities in the U.S. are more prone to menopausal symptoms. The study documented specific ethnic differences in the number and severity of symptoms among four major ethnic groups (Non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanic, African Americans, and Asians) and focused on women ages 40-60 since most women experience menopause around the age of 50.
According to the study, Hispanic women reported night sweats and hot flashes more frequently than non-Hispanic white women, although other symptoms were less common. Hispanic women also reported significantly larger numbers of total symptoms, physical symptoms, and psychosomatic symptoms than Asian women. African American women reported a significantly larger number of psychosomatic symptoms than Asian women, and non-Hispanic white women reported significantly larger numbers of total symptoms, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and psychosomatic symptoms than Asian women.
Osteoporosis and Menopause
Osteoporosis is a progressive form of bone loss common among postmenopausal women. About 70 percent of women in the United States have osteoporosis by the age of 80 and about 15 percent of non-Hispanic white women in the country eventually experience an osteoporosis-related hip fracture, according to the John Hopkins Arthritis Center. The development of osteoporosis is associated with lack of estrogen after menopause but hormone replacement therapy has been found to reduce the risk of the disease among women.
Interestingly, research has found that estrogen levels may be one factor that influences the development of osteoporosis in women, although ethnicity and lifestyle might be more important. For instance, 10 percent of Hispanic women over 50 have osteoporosis, according to the California Hispanic Osteoporosis Foundation. There are probably several explanations for the lower osteoporosis rates, aside from genetics. Ultimately, a more labor-intensive lifestyle and diet rich in phytoestrogens help guard against bone loss.
Specific differences exist for particular ethnic groups of menopausal women in the U.S. These differences are useful for targeting efforts to promote strategies to reduce menopausal symptoms and make best use of health promotion efforts such as adopting healthy-eating habits and leading an active lifestyle.
Sophie Okolo is the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Global Health Aging.
Richard Gaines, MD is the President and Chief Medical Officer of HealthGains, a leading hormone optimization center founded in 2005. Dr. Gaines has more than three decades of experience as a healthcare executive and physician with a focus on hormone therapy and platelet rich plasma therapy.
Early this month, Global Health Aging published an article about the dangers of type 2 diabetes among older Hispanics. The focus will now be on the prevalence of this disease among Hispanics including the impact of age, food habits, urbanization and length of stay in the U.S.
People of Latino and Hispanic descent are at a high risk of type 2 diabetes and related conditions. In the August 2014 issue of Diabetes Care, a study found that the risk varies a great deal among specific subgroups and even based on other factors like how long they have lived in the United States.
According to the study, the prevalence of diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) among Hispanics and Latinos of all groups was 16.9 percent for men and women compared to 10.2 percent for non-Hispanic whites. Prevalence varied a great deal when looking at subgroups. For example, individuals of Mexican descent had the highest prevalence at 18.3 percent while those of South American descent had the lowest prevalence of 10.2 percent. People of Puerto Rican and Dominican descent had a diabetes prevalence of 18.1 percent and those of Central American descent had a rate of 17.7 percent. More than 13 percent of people with Cuban descent had diabetes. This shows a strong correlation between diabetes and people of Hispanic descent in the United States. Many factors are responsible for the diabetes prevalence including unhealthy eating habits.
In the United States, Houston makes a great case study because of the city’s makeup and close location to Mexico and the Deep South. David Napier of University College London (UCL) states that “People used food as not only a reinforcement of tradition and ritual but also as a way of connecting socially. You’ve moved here from somewhere else, it’s a way to reinforce your identity, it’s a real cultural asset to have, but in a biological sense it’s not the best thing.” Nutrition is complex when tackling diabetes or obesity in Hispanic subgroups. This is why a flexible and targeted approach about healthy eating is necessary for fighting these conditions. Ultimately, the goal is not to get rid of traditional foods, but to find ways to make those foods healthier or introduce better options.
Other factors contributing to the diabetes prevalence include age, urbanization and length of stay in the U.S. The study published by Diabetes Care stated that diabetes rates increased significantly with age to 50 percent among Hispanic and Latino women by the age of 70 and 44 percent for men between ages 70 and 74. The study also reported that the longer someone lived in the U.S., the more likely they were to develop type 2 diabetes. Moreover, urban areas of Venezuela, Chile and Argentina are experiencing rising diabetes rates partly to traffic, crowded living conditions, air pollution, and a more sedentary lifestyle, according to a report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Type 2 diabetes is a serious global concern. Society needs to tackle the disease on all fronts because the consequences can be fatal. It is important to raise awareness of the complications and hope that medical professionals find new ways to reduce the burden of diabetes.
Sophie Okolo is the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Global Health Aging.
Parul Patel, DPM is the lead physician of Infinity Foot and Ankle, a podiatry practice with three locations in Texas. She has more than 11 years of experience in podiatric medicine. Dr. Patel specializes in podiatric care such as diabetic podiatry, preventative care and surgical podiatry.
Diabetes is a 5th leading cause of death among Hispanics and Latinos in the USA. Hispanics are 66 percent more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites and they have a 1.4 times greater risk of developing chronic kidney disease due to diabetes, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Moreover, there is currently an epidemic of diabetes among Hispanics and Latinos not only in the United States but also in Central America.
The Dangers of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes carries a number of dangers. While it may be easy to ignore, the disease affects the blood vessels, nerves, heart, kidneys and eyes. Complications of diabetes can eventually become life-threatening or disabling regardless of race. In fact, several studies have found that Hispanics and Latinos are at a greater risk of two of the most serious risks of diabetes: end-stage renal disease and foot amputation. Most cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are caused by diabetes and these cases are on the rise throughout Central and South America, according to a study published in the Clinical Kidney Journal. The study reported that the highest incidence of diabetes-caused ESRD was found in Mexico and Colombia.
Research has found that Hispanics and Latinos are also at a higher risk of foot damage due to diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Diabetes can lead to nerve damage in the feet and poor blood flow which raises the risk of a host of foot complications. In severe cases, toe, foot, or even leg amputation may be necessary. Diabetes is the leading cause of foot and leg amputations in the United States and Mexico. Between 2001 and 2004, the hospitalization rate for diabetes-related amputation among Hispanics and Latinos increased to 80 per 100,000 compared to roughly 28-31 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic whites.
Diabetics in developing countries are twice as likely to develop foot ulcers and require amputation than those in developed countries. In South and Central America, about 1.25 million diabetics undergo foot amputation. This number is expected to rise to 2.5 million by 2030, according to the International Diabetes Federation.
A great deal of the disparity is attributed to lack of health care and screening. Just 38 percent of adult Hispanics over the age of 40 with diabetes received the recommended annual foot, eye and blood sugar screenings compared to 47 percent for whites and blacks in the U.S. Hispanics were also 3.6 times more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be hospitalized for uncontrolled diabetes and 2.9 times more likely to be hospitalized for foot or leg amputation due to diabetes.
Controlling Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes can develop at any age but it is most often diagnosed in middle-aged and older people. Screening for type 2 diabetes is especially important after the age of 40. Therefore, it is important to note that while diabetes complications can be very serious, they are avoidable. The best way to avoid serious foot problems, including gangrene and amputation, is by receiving regular diabetic foot care and maintaining a healthy blood sugar level. Seeking the care of a knowledgeable foot and ankle doctor should also be top priority for all diabetic patients to avoid potentially life-threatening complications that may seem benign at first.
Parul Patel, DPM is the lead physician of Infinity Foot and Ankle, a podiatry practice with three locations in Texas. She has more than 11 years of experience in podiatric medicine and specializes in podiatric care such as diabetic podiatry, preventative care and surgical podiatry.
Alzheimer’s disease is “the most under-recognized public health crisis of the 21st century,” according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Only 45 percent of people with Alzheimer’s are told about their diagnosis by a healthcare provider, compared to more than 90 percent of people with the four most common types of cancer. And of the top 10 causes of death in the USA, Alzheimer’s is the only one that cannot be prevented, cured or slowed.
What is a public health crisis? The World Health Organization (WHO) uses the term “crisis” for a “situation that is perceived as difficult.” A crisis may at times elude public knowledge, contain different levels and layers of intensity, and have the potential to reach levels beyond what is predicted. For example, specific events such as the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic and 2001 anthrax attacks are characterized as public health crises. Issues like addiction and obesity often have the same distinction.
Alzheimer’s fits the definition of a public health crisis. People who have the disease are impacted, along with their loved ones and the entire healthcare system. In the coming years, the number of Alzheimer’s diagnoses and deaths is expected to increase. The financial toll of the disease on families and the economy is also expected to rise, worsening an already difficult situation.
What Is Being Done?
The CDC’s BRFSS Survey
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), collects data at the state and local level to target and build health promotion activities. Because the data tracks the impact of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease, it can be a strong tool for informing the community about these trends and how to respond. The survey can also help policymakers with decisions involving Alzheimer’s.
Initiatives Promoting Cognitive Health
Enhanced cognitive activity — along with good physical health, exercise, nutrition and social engagement — can potentially reduce the risk of cognitive decline and possibly prevent Alzheimer’s disease. The following initiatives represent some of the ways that federal agencies are addressing the crisis of Alzheimer’s disease.
Healthy Brain Initiative
The CDC and the Alzheimer’s Association organized the Healthy Brain Initiative, which seeks to better understand cognitive impairment. The initiative targets interventions to improve cognitive health and implementation of positive actions into public health practice.
According to the Public Health Road Map Report for 2013-2018, the initiative focuses on ensuring that people with dementia are aware of their diagnosis as well as reducing preventable hospitalizations among patients with dementia. Other action items are divided into four domains: monitor and evaluate public health data; educate and empower the nation about causes of disease, injury and disability; develop policy and mobilize partnerships on cognitive health; and assure a competent public health workforce.
Healthy People 2020
The Healthy People program establishes national health-related goals set by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The most recent 10-year agenda for public health topics and objectives listed dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease, as a new topic area for the program.
The primary goal in Healthy People 2020 is reducing morbidity and costs related to dementia as well as maintaining or enhancing the quality of life for those with dementia. Other areas where progress is important include early diagnosis, interventions to delay and prevent onset of disease, better ways to manage Alzheimer’s when other chronic conditions are present, and understanding lifestyle factors that influence risk.
The Role of Education
Education is critical for the public health crisis of Alzheimer’s disease. This can lead to greater public understanding of the disease, resulting in more support for people with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers. Enhanced public education can also create additional momentum for research on Alzheimer’s. Hence, public health professionals who are trained to help with Alzheimer’s can make a difference, from investigating the disease to providing resources in their community.
Brian Neese has been writing about online education for more than five years, with specialties in health care, business and education. In his spare time, he enjoys sports, movies and spending time with family and friends.