Tag Archives: Diana Kingsbury

Caring for the Needs of the Aging Workforce

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As the American population continues to age, there is an opportunity and a need to adequately respond to the unique needs of older adults. Ensuring a social structure that considers the needs of the aging is important, particularly as it is projected that by 2030, the number of Americans 65 and older will double and comprise nearly 20% of the total population. Comprehensively responding to the needs of the aging should include measures that protect the health, well being, and quality of life of older adults.

Included among the social changes that have been observed within the aging population in the U.S. is that more older American adults are delaying retirement and choosing to remain in the workforce past the traditional retirement age of 65. The desire to remain employed stems from improved quality of life among the aging and the capacity to continue working. However, for many older Americans, there is also a need to continue working due to economic pressure. According to recent research, 75% of Americans that were nearing retirement in 2010 had less than $30,000 available in their retirement accounts. With dwindling access to Social Security funds and the projected extension of the eligibility age to receive Social Security funds to 67 years of age in 2017, financial insecurity for the aging is requiring older workers to remain employed beyond the time they may have considered retirement.

There are benefits to older adults remaining in the workforce – both individually and occupationally. It has been noted that among older adults who remain employed, their cognitive capacity is less likely to diminish as compared to their non-employed peers due to mental engagement within the workplace. Additionally, research has shown that employers value the presence, contribution, and input of older workers and report that older employees exhibit knowledge related to job tasks, respond resiliently to job-related stressors and changes, and are willing to learn new tasks quickly. Added financial resources are also a significant benefit for older Americans who remain employed beyond retirement age.

Recent economic crises, however, have left few immune to financial loss. For older adults, financial loss as a result of the “Great Recession” have led to this need to continue working and raise enough money on which to live after retirement. For older adults who lost their jobs during the recent economic downturn, many reported that they continued searching for employment with little luck due to hiring preferences in many industries for younger employees. This represents a persistent area of vulnerability for the aging, as financial uncertainty after retirement remains a reality for many.

Diana Kingsbury is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at the Kent State University College of Public Health.

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The Threat of Food Insecurity Among the Elderly in the U.S. and Beyond

In 2012, 1.1 million (9.1 percent) U.S. senior citizens living independently were considered food insecure. This number is expected to increase by 50 percent in 2025 as the U.S. population continues to age. Data reported by American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) described increases in the number of older adults experiencing food insecurity since 2007. It was shown that food insecurity rose by 25 percent among individuals aged 60 and older between 2007-2009. According to AARP, individuals were more likely to report food insecurity if they were non-white, Hispanic, renters, widowed, divorced or separated, high school dropouts, unemployed and with a disability, had an income below the federal poverty line, and those with grandchildren living in the household.

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Defined as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways”, food insecurity is directly related to a household’s ability to acquire the foods that are necessary for daily living. Among vulnerable and dependent populations such as the elderly, food insecurity can be particularly pronounced.

Individuals who are considered food insecure are at risk for experiencing poor health due to malnutrition. Health risks of particular relevance to the elderly include impaired cognition, diminished immune function, and the potential decrease in life expectancy. In addition to physical health concerns, mental health risks may also accompany malnutrition including feelings of powerlessness and isolation as well as stress and anxiety. Among the elderly, feelings of anxiety related to food insecurity are more pronounced than among young people. For the elderly living with chronic diseases (a number that has grown exponentially worldwide) such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, having access to a nutritious diet is a key factor in their ability to manage their condition.

While food insecurity is closely tied to having the financial resources necessary to purchase food, among the elderly, additional barriers may impact their access. In a series of interviews conducted with 46 elderly households in New York state, additional barriers to food access that participants reported were: transportation limitations, mobility limitations, lack of motivation/ability to prepare meals, financial compromises (purchasing food vs. other expenses), and food compromises (quality vs. quantity).

From a global perspective, ensuring that the aging population has adequate access to the resources necessary for healthy living (including safe, nutritious, and affordable food options) should be a priority. Advocating for such resources requires concerted efforts locally, regionally, and nationally. This is particularly important as our global society continues to confront multidimensional problems that threaten environmental, economic, and social stability.

Diana Kingsbury
is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at Kent State University College of Public Health.

Aging, Health, and Social Networks

Across the globe, nearly every country of the world is experiencing population aging. According to the United Nations, the number of people aged 60 years or older is expected to increase to more than 2 billion by 2050. While this shift in demographics carries implications for the social and economic makeup of our global society, it is important to also consider the unique health needs of the aging population.

Included among the most pressing health needs for the aged are managing chronic disease, preventing falls, maintaining cognitive function, and ensuring improved quality of life throughout the life span. Of additional importance to healthy aging, particularly in terms of health related quality of life, is the social support older adults receive from their family, friends, and communities. A known contributor to health related quality of life (HRQOL) is the strength of one’s social networks. It has been shown that individuals who report close bonds with family and friends are more likely to positively self-report their health. This was shown to remain true among elderly in the U.S., who reported improved health if they felt satisfied with the support available to them from family members, friends, and their communities.

From the perspective of the elderly, however, changes that occur late in the lifespan also translate to changes in their social networks and their social support. Social networks have been defined to include family members, friends and acquaintances, work and school connections, and relationships built in formal and informal organizations. Among the elderly, connections may be lost for a variety of reasons throughout the aging process, including retirement, limited mobility that prevents participation in previous activities, as well as the aging and death of close connections. Such changes to the social fabric, that a person formerly engaged with, carries implications for the health related quality of life an individual experiences.

For the elderly, a strong social network often translates into diminished feelings of loneliness, support for mental and physical health needs, as well as improved cognitive functioning. The elderly who feel supported by their community are less likely to report feelings of isolation and report better health than those who do not feel supported. With global population aging, ensuring that all individuals age with dignity, respect, and support should be of paramount importance.

The lengthening of the lifespan should also come as an increase in the number of years lived in high quality health. To protect the health of the aging population, concerted efforts should be made on the part of health care providers, communities, governments, families, and friends to ensure that all individuals enter into the late stages of life with the support that is necessary to live positively and healthfully.

Diana Kingsbury is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at the Kent State University College of Public Health.