Category Archives: North America

North America is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west, and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. It is the third largest continent by area and the fourth by population.

Caring for the Needs of the Aging Workforce

628x471

As the American population continues to age, there is an opportunity and a need to adequately respond to the unique needs of older adults. Ensuring a social structure that considers the needs of the aging is important, particularly as it is projected that by 2030, the number of Americans 65 and older will double and comprise nearly 20% of the total population. Comprehensively responding to the needs of the aging should include measures that protect the health, well being, and quality of life of older adults.

Included among the social changes that have been observed within the aging population in the U.S. is that more older American adults are delaying retirement and choosing to remain in the workforce past the traditional retirement age of 65. The desire to remain employed stems from improved quality of life among the aging and the capacity to continue working. However, for many older Americans, there is also a need to continue working due to economic pressure. According to recent research, 75% of Americans that were nearing retirement in 2010 had less than $30,000 available in their retirement accounts. With dwindling access to Social Security funds and the projected extension of the eligibility age to receive Social Security funds to 67 years of age in 2017, financial insecurity for the aging is requiring older workers to remain employed beyond the time they may have considered retirement.

There are benefits to older adults remaining in the workforce – both individually and occupationally. It has been noted that among older adults who remain employed, their cognitive capacity is less likely to diminish as compared to their non-employed peers due to mental engagement within the workplace. Additionally, research has shown that employers value the presence, contribution, and input of older workers and report that older employees exhibit knowledge related to job tasks, respond resiliently to job-related stressors and changes, and are willing to learn new tasks quickly. Added financial resources are also a significant benefit for older Americans who remain employed beyond retirement age.

Recent economic crises, however, have left few immune to financial loss. For older adults, financial loss as a result of the “Great Recession” have led to this need to continue working and raise enough money on which to live after retirement. For older adults who lost their jobs during the recent economic downturn, many reported that they continued searching for employment with little luck due to hiring preferences in many industries for younger employees. This represents a persistent area of vulnerability for the aging, as financial uncertainty after retirement remains a reality for many.

Diana Kingsbury is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at the Kent State University College of Public Health.

Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s: A Great Threat to the U.S. National Budget

1000373_10151675306563540_1632230444_n
Since the last Presidential Election, the national budget has been a sore spot for Republicans and Democrats, the two major political parties in the U.S. While government programs such as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are leading debates on reducing the national budget, politicians are oblivious of a looming threat to the budget. People with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases require constant and very expensive care. Also, these debilitating illnesses can prevent affected persons from working, which may have a devastating long-term impact on the budget.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S. and an estimated 5.4 million Americans currently suffer from AD. If current population trends continue, the number of people with Alzheimer’s disease will increase significantly unless the disease can be effectively treated or prevented. The U.S. population is aging and the risk of Alzheimer’s increases with age. For instance, Alzheimer’s usually begins after age 60 and the number of people with the disease doubles for every five-year interval beyond age 65. About five percent of men and women ages 65 to 74 have Alzheimer’s disease and it is estimated that nearly half of those age 85 and older may have the disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease and affects one million people in the United States. Symptoms of PD include muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait that worsen as the illness progresses over time. PD is more common in the elderly and most often develops after age 50. Sometimes, Parkinson’s disease occurs in younger adults. When a young person is affected with PD, it is usually because of a form of the disease that runs in families.

With strong research investment, heart disease deaths in the U.S. fell by 13 percent in the past decade. Alzheimer’s deaths rose by 68 percent from 2000 to 2010 and continue to increase. The issue is not how, but why we cannot increase our investment in research into fighting these diseases that have a tremendous impact on both the individual and society. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s get comparatively less funding than other top diseases because they are more common in the elderly and largely ignored. Stigma is another reason why it is hard to raise money since people with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s rarely talk about the disease. Also, Alzheimer’s is different from other diseases because Alzheimer’s patients rarely lead marches to fight for more funding since their memory is impacted. It is important to our nation’s economic future to reduce the deficit, but we cannot ignore the importance of investing in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s research. As the nation’s older populations grow, the cost of care for these diseases will rise dramatically. In fact, Alzheimer’s is expected to cost the U.S. more than $1 trillion annually and persons who leave the workforce to care for an affected family member impact economic productivity. Increasing funding for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s will require difficult choices and shared sacrifice in spending reductions and increased revenues.

AlzheimersAssociation
As the U.S. Congress continues to agree or disagree on the best way to fix Medicare, a government health program, the national budget will likely increase if there is no dramatic increased investment in research into fighting Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The devastating statistics continue to increase and rising health care costs pose a great problem to the U.S. economy.

Sophie Okolo is the Founder of Global Health Aging.

Fighting Loneliness – Pet Therapy for the Elderly

For many, retirement and old age is a welcome stage of life with few responsibilities, and a lot of time to pursue interests. To others, it brings on that dreaded feeling which no amount of pills and doctor appointments can cure – loneliness. According to AARP, over a third of Americans over 45 years are lonely. Retirement, decreased mobility and income source are all contributing factors to increased social isolation. Studies show that loneliness puts the individual in greater risk of diseases and illness, and greatly impacts their well-being and quality of life.

pet
A variety of interventions are in place to combat loneliness in the geriatric population. They focus on various high risk groups and employ various individual and group approaches. There are also several programs in place, including social and cultural outings, health promotion, community engagement and group support. However, few show direct improvement in reducing loneliness among the elderly. A study comparing eighteen different interventions in Netherlands concluded that only two of them significantly reduced loneliness – one, an individual, at-home intervention for the elderly with chronic disease, and two, a group intervention in a residential home that included discussion and coffee breaks. There is limited success in identifying and employing interventions that significantly reduce loneliness

Another lesser known intervention to battle loneliness is the use of companion animals. Pet ownership and interaction positively contribute to the overall wellbeing of elderly citizens as pets can instil a sense of responsibility and purpose in the elderly, and provide much solace from loneliness. The role of Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is increasingly being explored in elderly care. AAT is a formal, documented process with scheduled sessions and a treatment goal. AAT most commonly uses dogs, but is not restricted to fish, rabbits, cats, horses and dolphins. AAT should not be confused with service animals, and animal-assisted activities (AAA). Service animals and AAA are more spontaneous and do not necessarily have a treatment goal. Both AAT and AAA can help in increasing social behaviors, interaction with people as well and decreasing loneliness among the elderly.

In addition to temporary animal companionship, several organizations also look to provide seniors with the opportunity of pet ownership. The ‘Seniors for Seniors’ program is employed among many non-profits and animal shelters across the United States. This program looks to place adult dogs and cats with willing and able senior citizens. Since older dogs are usually house-broken, trained, and come with a fully developed personality, they can serve as great companions to the elderly.Several animal welfare organizations such as SAVE, Paws and the North Shore Animal League America successfully run such a program, often providing financial and other support to senior adopters. Pets for the Elderly Foundation, is a non-profit solely focused to this cause. It provides financial support to adoption centers around the United States that place dogs and cats with senior citizens.

Animal therapy, in all its forms, is a burgeoning field of study in geriatric care. There are only a handful of scientific studies documenting the efficacy of AAT on loneliness, but current research shows positive trends. Despite the challenges of working with animals, the therapeutic role companion animals can play in fighting loneliness is promising.

Namratha Rao is currently pursuing her MSPH in International Health in Social and Behavioral Interventions at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

The Threat of Food Insecurity Among the Elderly in the U.S. and Beyond

In 2012, 1.1 million (9.1 percent) U.S. senior citizens living independently were considered food insecure. This number is expected to increase by 50 percent in 2025 as the U.S. population continues to age. Data reported by American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) described increases in the number of older adults experiencing food insecurity since 2007. It was shown that food insecurity rose by 25 percent among individuals aged 60 and older between 2007-2009. According to AARP, individuals were more likely to report food insecurity if they were non-white, Hispanic, renters, widowed, divorced or separated, high school dropouts, unemployed and with a disability, had an income below the federal poverty line, and those with grandchildren living in the household.

                                                                                                        Photo Credit: Pixabay

Defined as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways”, food insecurity is directly related to a household’s ability to acquire the foods that are necessary for daily living. Among vulnerable and dependent populations such as the elderly, food insecurity can be particularly pronounced.

Individuals who are considered food insecure are at risk for experiencing poor health due to malnutrition. Health risks of particular relevance to the elderly include impaired cognition, diminished immune function, and the potential decrease in life expectancy. In addition to physical health concerns, mental health risks may also accompany malnutrition including feelings of powerlessness and isolation as well as stress and anxiety. Among the elderly, feelings of anxiety related to food insecurity are more pronounced than among young people. For the elderly living with chronic diseases (a number that has grown exponentially worldwide) such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, having access to a nutritious diet is a key factor in their ability to manage their condition.

While food insecurity is closely tied to having the financial resources necessary to purchase food, among the elderly, additional barriers may impact their access. In a series of interviews conducted with 46 elderly households in New York state, additional barriers to food access that participants reported were: transportation limitations, mobility limitations, lack of motivation/ability to prepare meals, financial compromises (purchasing food vs. other expenses), and food compromises (quality vs. quantity).

From a global perspective, ensuring that the aging population has adequate access to the resources necessary for healthy living (including safe, nutritious, and affordable food options) should be a priority. Advocating for such resources requires concerted efforts locally, regionally, and nationally. This is particularly important as our global society continues to confront multidimensional problems that threaten environmental, economic, and social stability.

Diana Kingsbury
is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at Kent State University College of Public Health.

A Comparative View of Elder Abuse in Israel and the United States

Photo Credit: Hamed Masoumi

I spend every Tuesday morning visiting a dear friend at a local nursing home. My friend is a Holocaust survivor and at 90 years old, her mind is sharp since she easily recounts the story of her life – from the horrors of the camps to the beauty of Israel and finally to the hard work, freedom, and challenges of America. As I am ready to leave her and return to school each week, a look of loneliness washes over the smile on her face and I am reminded that her only other visitors are nurses and her daughter who can visit once a week.

The elderly comprise a significant amount of the U.S. population and statistics indicate that 10,000 baby boomers will turn 65 each day for the next 15 years. As the U.S. population ages, older adults are often viewed in a negative light, and hence a target group for all kinds of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal and financial exploitation. It is estimated that a shocking 500,000 older adults are abused each year in the United States, with family members as the overwhelming majority of abusers (mainly partners and children of the individual). Most of these cases go unreported because the victim does not have the physical capability or mental capacity to inform an official of the mistreatment.

Elder abuse is a major issue currently plaguing Israel as well. A report by the University of Haifa indicated that 18 percent of elderly participants were subject to some form of abuse. The most common form is verbal abuse, indicating a potential problem in interpersonal relationships as people age. Verbal abuse may also be used as a method to instill terror and power in a relationship, lending the way to more types of abuse.

Many religions teach people to respect and revere the elderly. In short, an individual’s exterior does not properly convey the depth of its contents. My dear friend appears to be a frail old woman with a failing body but her mind is very active. The elderly are people above all else and they deserve to be treated as such.

It is impossible to ignore the fact that everyone will grow old one day. With this in mind, I urge you to take some time and think about giving back by volunteering with a senior in your area. You may be the only contact the person has with the outside world beside the caregiver, and can advocate on their behalf if you suspect abuse. For U.S. residents, visit Give Back to Seniors to search for volunteer opportunities in your community.

Linda Nakagawa is a rising senior at Brandeis University. She is a double major in Psychology and Politics with a minor in Social Justice Social Policy. Linda is originally from Newburgh, New York and is a member of Temple Beth Jacob. As a Machon Kaplan participant, Linda was a public policy intern at the National Association of States United for Aging and Disability.