Category Archives: North America

North America is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west, and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. It is the third largest continent by area and the fourth by population.

The Threat of Food Insecurity Among the Elderly in the U.S. and Beyond

In 2012, 1.1 million (9.1 percent) U.S. senior citizens living independently were considered food insecure. This number is expected to increase by 50 percent in 2025 as the U.S. population continues to age. Data reported by American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) described increases in the number of older adults experiencing food insecurity since 2007. It was shown that food insecurity rose by 25 percent among individuals aged 60 and older between 2007-2009. According to AARP, individuals were more likely to report food insecurity if they were non-white, Hispanic, renters, widowed, divorced or separated, high school dropouts, unemployed and with a disability, had an income below the federal poverty line, and those with grandchildren living in the household.

                                                                                                        Photo Credit: Pixabay

Defined as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways”, food insecurity is directly related to a household’s ability to acquire the foods that are necessary for daily living. Among vulnerable and dependent populations such as the elderly, food insecurity can be particularly pronounced.

Individuals who are considered food insecure are at risk for experiencing poor health due to malnutrition. Health risks of particular relevance to the elderly include impaired cognition, diminished immune function, and the potential decrease in life expectancy. In addition to physical health concerns, mental health risks may also accompany malnutrition including feelings of powerlessness and isolation as well as stress and anxiety. Among the elderly, feelings of anxiety related to food insecurity are more pronounced than among young people. For the elderly living with chronic diseases (a number that has grown exponentially worldwide) such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, having access to a nutritious diet is a key factor in their ability to manage their condition.

While food insecurity is closely tied to having the financial resources necessary to purchase food, among the elderly, additional barriers may impact their access. In a series of interviews conducted with 46 elderly households in New York state, additional barriers to food access that participants reported were: transportation limitations, mobility limitations, lack of motivation/ability to prepare meals, financial compromises (purchasing food vs. other expenses), and food compromises (quality vs. quantity).

From a global perspective, ensuring that the aging population has adequate access to the resources necessary for healthy living (including safe, nutritious, and affordable food options) should be a priority. Advocating for such resources requires concerted efforts locally, regionally, and nationally. This is particularly important as our global society continues to confront multidimensional problems that threaten environmental, economic, and social stability.

Diana Kingsbury
is a PhD student and graduate assistant in prevention science at Kent State University College of Public Health.

A Comparative View of Elder Abuse in Israel and the United States

Photo Credit: Hamed Masoumi

I spend every Tuesday morning visiting a dear friend at a local nursing home. My friend is a Holocaust survivor and at 90 years old, her mind is sharp since she easily recounts the story of her life – from the horrors of the camps to the beauty of Israel and finally to the hard work, freedom, and challenges of America. As I am ready to leave her and return to school each week, a look of loneliness washes over the smile on her face and I am reminded that her only other visitors are nurses and her daughter who can visit once a week.

The elderly comprise a significant amount of the U.S. population and statistics indicate that 10,000 baby boomers will turn 65 each day for the next 15 years. As the U.S. population ages, older adults are often viewed in a negative light, and hence a target group for all kinds of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal and financial exploitation. It is estimated that a shocking 500,000 older adults are abused each year in the United States, with family members as the overwhelming majority of abusers (mainly partners and children of the individual). Most of these cases go unreported because the victim does not have the physical capability or mental capacity to inform an official of the mistreatment.

Elder abuse is a major issue currently plaguing Israel as well. A report by the University of Haifa indicated that 18 percent of elderly participants were subject to some form of abuse. The most common form is verbal abuse, indicating a potential problem in interpersonal relationships as people age. Verbal abuse may also be used as a method to instill terror and power in a relationship, lending the way to more types of abuse.

Many religions teach people to respect and revere the elderly. In short, an individual’s exterior does not properly convey the depth of its contents. My dear friend appears to be a frail old woman with a failing body but her mind is very active. The elderly are people above all else and they deserve to be treated as such.

It is impossible to ignore the fact that everyone will grow old one day. With this in mind, I urge you to take some time and think about giving back by volunteering with a senior in your area. You may be the only contact the person has with the outside world beside the caregiver, and can advocate on their behalf if you suspect abuse. For U.S. residents, visit Give Back to Seniors to search for volunteer opportunities in your community.

Linda Nakagawa is a rising senior at Brandeis University. She is a double major in Psychology and Politics with a minor in Social Justice Social Policy. Linda is originally from Newburgh, New York and is a member of Temple Beth Jacob. As a Machon Kaplan participant, Linda was a public policy intern at the National Association of States United for Aging and Disability.